What Is Toyota Production System And Its Types

Understanding the Toyota Production System and its types – Toyota is a world-famous automotive brand with high-quality automotive products. In carrying out its production, Toyota uses a production system known as the Toyota Production System which is abbreviated as TPS.

The production system developed by Taiichi Ohno and Eiji Toyoda from Toyota Motor Corporation aims to provide the best quality, lowest cost, and shortest production lead time through the elimination of waste which occurs at the time of production.

Today many manufacturing companies are learning and implementing this Toyota production system in running their production and operations. The Lean Manufacturing concept is basically part of the Toyota Production System.

The Toyota Production System basically consists of two main pillars namely “Just In Time (JIT)” and ” Jidoka ” which are supported by Kaizen, Work Standards, Heijunka, PDCA, 5S, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) and other scientific methods as a foundation which is usually illustrated by the form of “House” as in the picture below.

Toyota Production System

3M in Toyota Production System (TPS)

The Toyota Production System is a way to reduce Takt Time [1], reduce defects and costs, increase customer satisfaction, adhere to delivery schedules, and increase the value of the products it produces.

According to the Toyota Production System, there are three inefficiencies that must be avoided or at least reduced in order to achieve the goals stated above. The three inefficiencies in question include Muda, Mura, and Muri, or sometimes abbreviated as 3M.

1 — Muda – Muda is an activity or process that does not provide added value (no value) or is usually called waste in the English language. According to Taiichi Ohno, there are 7 Waste or 7 Young that must be avoided in the production.

The seven wastes and Muda include Waste of Overproduction, Waste of Inventory, Waste of Defects, Waste of Transportation, Waste of Motion, Waste of Waiting, Waste of Overprocessing. For a more complete explanation of these 7 Waste, you can read in the article: Understanding 7 Waste in Lean Manufacturing.

2 — Mura  – Mura is inequality or inconsistency that can cause Muda or waste. Examples of Mura such as fluctuations in customer demand fluctuating, process imbalances so that there is a fast process and there are certain processes that are very slow or different product life cycles.

3 — Muri – What is meant by Muri is an excessive burden or a burden that exceeds the limits of the ability of resources (labor, machinery, processes). Muri is one of the causes of Mura.

The occurrence of Muri can be caused by the use of the wrong tools or machines, lack of training in the workforce or unclear work procedures that must be carried out by the workforce.

Two Main Pillars of the Toyota Production System (TPS)

To reduce 3M (Muda, Mura, and Muri), there are two methods that can be done. The two methods are the two pillars of the Toyota Production System mentioned earlier, namely JIT and Jidoka.

Just In Time Manufacturing

Just In Time or JIT is a concept where the entire production process will only start when the customer orders it and meets the customer’s needs at the right time in accordance with the amount desired by the customer. All resources needed by the production process are prepared just in the time needed.

The concept of Just In Time aims to reduce 3 out of 7 waste / Young which is called a source of inefficiency by Toyota’s production system.

The three wastes that can be avoided when implementing the Just-In-Time Manufacturing production system are Waste of Overproduction, Waste of Inventory, Waste of Waiting. For more information, you can read in the article: Understanding the Just-In-Time Production System (JIT).

Jidoka (Autonomation)

Jidoka is the Japanese language which, if translated into English, is Automation. There are various translations for this word but the translation that is often used is “Autonomation” which means it is “Automation with Human Touch “.

So basically what is meant by Jidoka or Autonomation is the use of machines to detect errors or damage and stop the production process automatically if an error occurs. Thus, the quality of products produced by production can be maintained well and free from all defects.


[1] Takt Time is the average time between the start of production of one unit and the start of production of the next unit

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