What is Scheduling in the Production Process – Scheduling or making a schedule is one of the important activities in the production process or the work of a project. Scheduling is used as a basis for allocating factory resources such as machinery and production equipment, planning for human resources to be used, purchasing materials, and planning the production process.
Good scheduling will have a positive impact on the smooth production and minimize production time and costs.
Please to also read Definition of Production and Operations Management and its Scope.
So, Production Scheduling can be defined as the process of managing, controlling, and optimizing work and workload in the production process or manufacturing process. In other words, production scheduling is determining the time and place where a production process must be carried out to get the desired amount.
With the Production Scheduling, management can identify what resources will be consumed at certain stages of production based on the estimated schedule made so that the company does not lack resources during production.
Definition of Scheduling according to Experts
The following are some of the definitions of Scheduling or Scheduling relating to the production process and operations according to several experts:
- Definition of Scheduling according to Vollman (1998), Scheduling is a plan of working order arrangement and allocation of resources, both time and facilities for each operation that must be completed.
- Definition of Scheduling according to Krajewski and Ritzman, Scheduling is the allocation of resources from time to time to support the implementation and completion of specific work activity.
- Definition of Scheduling according to Baker (1974), Scheduling is the activity of allocating resources or existing machines to carry out a set of tasks within a certain period of time.
- Definition of Scheduling according to Russell, Taylor, Buffa, and Sarin, Scheduling is the determination of labor, equipment, and facilities needed to complete the manufacture of a particular product or service.
- Definition of Scheduling according to Abrar Husen (2009), scheduling is the allocation of time available to carry out each work in order to complete a project to achieve optimal results by considering the existing limitations.
- Definition of Scheduling according to Herjanto (1999), Scheduling is setting the time of operating activity, in general, scheduling aims to minimize processing time, subscription waiting time, and inventory levels, as well as efficient use of facilities, labor, and equipment. Scheduling is prepared with consideration of various limitations that exist.
Two Techniques in Production Scheduling
In general, there are two techniques in production scheduling, namely Forward Scheduling and Backward Scheduling.
1. Scheduling Forward ( Forward Scheduling )
Forward Scheduling is a production scheduling technique that determines the start time of production (start) first and then calculates the timetable forward for each operation / production in order to determine the time of the completion of the entire production process (completion).
2. Backward Scheduling
Backward Scheduling is a production scheduling technique that identifies the time a product is needed or the time when a project should be completed. From the time of completion or the time needs are then counted down the exact time when a project or production process must start.
Production Scheduling Methodology
Production Scheduling Methodology basically depends on the type of industry, organization, type of product, and the level of sophistication in producing products. The following are some methodologies in scheduling the production process.
- Gantt Chart
- Priority Decision Rules
- Mathematical Programming Methods:
– Linear Program model
– Network Model PERT / CPM